The Time for Environmental Action is NOW!

The EFM Notebook

Photo by Robert Badger and Nita Winter

A Commentary on What’s New and Newsworthy

by Susan Holloway | Bio

NOTE: EFM Notebook is best viewed horizontally, when using your phone.                      EFM Notebook Index

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  • 21 Jul 2021 8:22 PM | Gayle Marsh (Administrator)
      A flutter of Monarchs

    Monarch enjoying a mud puddle

    Pretty much everyone knows what a Monarch butterfly looks like (i.e., gorgeous) but here are some other cool things you may not know:
    • A group of Monarch butterflies is called a flutter. 
    • A Monarch flaps its wings five to 12 times per second, approximately 720 times per minute. 
    • After eating milkweed leaves for up to two weeks, Monarch caterpillars weigh 3,000 times what they did as an egg.
    • Monarchs cannot land on water to drink; rather, they sip liquid from muddy soil, behavior known as “puddling.” They obtain not only moisture from this brew, but also salts and other dissolved minerals. 

    Bad News, Good News about Monarch Butterflies

    The bad news is that Monarchs have been disappearing from the West Coast at an alarming rate over the last 40 years. Reasons for their decline include loss of breeding and overwintering habitat, climate change, pesticides, and natural predators.

    The Monarch population in California and Baja California has dropped from 4.5 million to 2,000 in 40 years.

    The good news is that many individuals and groups have rallied to the cause of saving the Western Monarch from extinction. Two great organizations focused on education, advocacy, and research are the Xerces Society and Monarch Joint Venture. Locally, the Pollinator Posse has been working effectively to educate the public and create habitat for butterflies, as has the Environmental Action Committee of West Marin. 

    The movement to recover Western Monarchs is multi-pronged. In Marin, there has been a significant push to encourage residents to plant native milkweed, essential to the survival on Monarch caterpillars, and to stop using insecticide to control garden pests. Read more about these efforts in an earlier Notebook post

    Habitat Improvement in Agricultural Lands

      Pollinator habitat on McCracken Family Farm in the Central Valley (source: Monarch Joint Venture website)
    Let’s focus briefly on recent attempts to improve habitats other than the home garden. For example, the Monarch Joint Venture recently initiated a free seed program to enhance the habitat for pollinators on working lands in California. Farmers and ranchers can apply for technical assistance in the planting of native wildflower seed mixes and milkweed plugs provided by the program. This year’s participants are preparing their sites this summer and will plant the seeds and plants in the fall. While drought conditions may pose challenges, the program offers a compelling blueprint for creating pollinator habitat on agricultural lands.

    The Mysterious Disappearance of the Monarch Caterpillar

    What is happening to the caterpillars?  
    In contrast to these positive developments, other Monarch news from the Bay Area is not so positive. This summer, local organizations and residents have noted that the number of Monarch caterpillars is lower than expected, especially given all the effort to improve local habitat with milkweed and nectar plants. It appears that eggs are being laid and larvae are hatching, but then not surviving more than a few days. 


    Risk to Monarch Caterpillars from Predators

    Paper wasp consuming a Monarch caterpillar

    Two of the caterpillar’s most deadly predators are the paper wasp and the yellow jacket. Most of us are familiar with yellow jackets, a predator wasp with a nasty stinger. If you’ve ever been to a barbecue, you know that they love meat. Ordinarily, if they don’t have access to a hamburger, they eat insects. This summer, with hot days and no rain, yellow jackets are having a hard time finding water and food. Our green backyards have become having a particularly attractive alternative to the natural spaces they ordinarily depend on for sustenance, particularly if they are full of milkweed-munching caterpillars.

    European paper wasps may also be a factor in the loss of Monarch caterpillars this summer. First reported in North America in the 1970s, these insects are now widespread in urban areas. They have a strong proclivity to nest in sheltered places around buildings. Research suggests that urban gardens with lots of milkweed and pollinator plants may unintentionally create an “ecological trap” in which the congregated butterflies are vulnerable to predation by paper wasps who already inhabit the area. This may be at work in Marin, although we need more evidence to substantiate this hypothesis.

      Small Milkweed Bug
    The Small Milkweed Bug is a common visitor to milkweed plants in Marin. They are mostly herbaceous, extracting nectar from flowers and feeding on milkweed seeds. However, they sometimes feed on honeybees and monarch caterpillars when other forms of food are scarce. Perhaps the current drought, and associated lack of vegetation, has pushed them to carnivorous behavior. 

    What can you do to mitigate the danger these predators pose to Monarch caterpillars? Yellow jackets are carnivorous, so don’t leave pet food outside and be sure garbage is contained in tightly sealed cans. If you find a wasp or yellow jacket nest, you can try to remove it yourself, or call the Mosquito & Vector Control Association of California at (916) 440-0826 for assistance. For other ideas, take a look at these suggestions from the UC Integrated Pest Management Program

    Risk from Parasites and Parasitoids

    Monarchs exposed to OE parasites often have crumpled wings  
    Parasites are smaller organisms that live and multiply inside their hosts, taking nutrients and resources from them. 

    Perhaps the most-studied parasite of Monarchs is Ophryocystis elektroschirra (OE). OE infections occur when a caterpillar ingests OE spores that have fallen from an infected adult butterfly onto a milkweed leaf. The spores then take up residence in the caterpillar’s gut.

    Caterpillars with a particularly high dose of OE parasites are likely to die before reaching the pupa state. Surviving infected adults often have difficulty emerging from their pupal cases and expanding their wings. They are generally smaller and shorter-lived than uninfected adults.

    One third of Western Monarchs are heavily infected with OE. Generally, non-migrating Monarchs are much more heavily infected than those that migrate to an overwintering site. Access to non-native tropical milkweed, which flowers throughout the year, reduces the need to migrate, suggesting that it is not a good choice for Bay Area gardens. 

    Monarch on native milkweed
    (photo source: Xerces Society)

    Tachinid fly..a face only a mother could love
    Parasitoids are specialized insects that lay eggs on or inside another insect, which then develop by consuming the host. It’s a sweet deal for the parasitoid. It has a nice, protected place to grow and develop, as well as a reliable source of food. 

    One parasitoid that loves Monarch caterpillars is the Tachinid fly, which resembles a large house fly. Female Tachinids lay eggs on Monarch caterpillars. One study of a common Tachinid parasitoid found it in about 13% of wild Monarch caterpillars

    It’s hard to appreciate predators, parasites, and parasitoids when we suspect them of scarfing down Monarch caterpillars. However, these “natural enemies” offer a sustainable way of controlling garden and agricultural pests compared to using pesticides. It is just with respect to the Monarch caterpillar that these creatures are on the wrong side of justice.


    Risks from Pesticides

    This label is better than nothing, but doesn’t warn the consumer that neonics are harmful

    The most persistent risk to Monarchs comes from neonics, a class of insecticides widely used in agriculture and landscaping. Neonics are applied to mature plants or to seeds, which absorb the pesticide. The concentration of neonics in products sold for residential use is approximately 30 times the allowance permitted in the agricultural sector.

    Neonics were initially marketed as being less harmful than other insecticides, but we now know their devastating impacts on pollinators and beneficial insects. Experimental studies as well as those conducted in agricultural settings focusing specifically on Monarch caterpillars show that their growth and survival is adversely affected by exposure to neonics.

    Pressure from consumers and conservation organizations has led some large retailers to label plants treated with neonics. But the hope is that they will cease selling this type of plant altogether.  

    More Ideas for Action

    Become a Monarch Parent? Given the high mortality of Monarch caterpillars, it is tempting to gather eggs and bring them inside where you can nurture them throughout their development. Indeed, Monarchs reared in this way are much more likely to survive than those in the wild. However, there are serious drawbacks to captive rearing, and it is not recommended by Xerces or the Monarch Joint Venture. Here’s a good summary of the issue. While they do not endorse large-scale attempts at captive rearing, MJV gives the OK to people interested in rearing them “for enjoyment, education, or community science.”

    Hands-on learning!
    Western Monarch Count regional coordinator Mia Monroe and volunteers (Photo: Carole Fitzgerald) Don't plant tropical milkweed!

    Teach others. If you work with (or have) elementary-aged children take a look at this great toolkit from the World Wildlife Fund. It is well-written and full of ideas for activities. Journey North also has some great resources for kids. 

    Get involved in data collection. Citizen scientists can provide important information about monarch breeding phenology. You don’t have to be an expert to make a big contribution. You can report your monarch adult, caterpillar, egg, and milkweed sightings to an easy-to-use site managed by one of the following organizations: Western Monarch Milkweed Mapper, iNaturalist, Journey North, or the Pollinator Posse.
     A puddling area for Monarchs

    Plant native milkweed. Ask your local nursery to start supplying native milkweed and pollinator plants that are free of insecticides. Organize a group to collect and propagate milkweed seed. Plant native milkweed and be sure not to get the tropical kind!

    Get into puddling. Monarchs obtain moisture and important minerals from mud. Create a puddling area for Monarchs by digging a wide, shallow depression in the ground and lining it with plastic weed barrier or pond liner. Or just use a shallow dish. Then add a 1-2 inch layer of landscape sand mixed with soil, along with just enough water to keep it wet. You can also put in a few rocks to serve as landing and basking places. 

    Get help! The Pollinator Habitat Help Desk line offers anyone in the United States personal recommendations and answers to your pollinator questions. Give them a call at 833-MILKWEE (833-645-5933) between 9 and 5 PM Central Time, or send an email to

    That’s it for this installment of the EFM Notebook! Thanks very much to Mia Monroe, Wynter Vaughn, and Alice Carson for their helpful suggestions on this post. And thanks to Rob Badger and Nita Winter for sharing Rob’s beautiful image for the Notebook banner. Check out their award-winning book or visit their website to see more!

  • 28 Jun 2021 4:44 PM | Gayle Marsh (Administrator)

    Today we are talking about hummingbirds. Let’s start with a quiz.

    True or False?

    1. Hummingbirds are endangered in California.
    2. A hummingbird egg is the size of a jellybean.
    3. Hummingbirds can fly upside down.
    4. A hummingbird’s tongue wraps around the inside of its skull, encircling the eyes.

    Read on to find out how you did on the quiz!

    Hummingbirds are endangered in California: FALSE!

    Human habitation and roads can fragment and degrade natural habitat. But the Anna’s hummingbird is thriving, especially in urban and suburban areas! Whaaaat?! It’s mostly because they happily make use of the nectar in our flowery landscaping, and they very much enjoy the nectar feeders that we often put in our yards. 

    Male Anna’s Hummingbird Female Anna’s Hummingbird Male Black-Chinned Hummingbird 

    I think most of us would agree that hummingbirds are beautiful and amazing creatures. But what do they do besides looking great? Answer: they are great pollinators!

    I confess that until now I thought that lots of birds were pollinators. But the reading I’ve done for this post has helped me realize that very few of them perform this vital function. In the US, it is the hummingbirds who are the premiere bird pollinators. The species that Californians see most commonly is the one that lives here year-round: Anna’s hummingbird.

    Originally found only on the Pacific slope from Baja California to San Francisco, the Anna's hummingbird has expanded its breeding range north to British Columbia and east to Arizona and even Texas. They are plentiful in Marin, but also do well in more urban areas. In San Francisco, you can see them in the Presidio but also downtown, for example at Sue Bierman Park near the Ferry Building. 

    California is also a rest stop for migrating Allen’s, Rufous, and Black-Chinned hummingbirds. (Hang on, does anyone really think that hummingbirds actually have a chin?)

    A hummingbird egg is the size of a jelly bean: TRUE!


    No one would expect Hummingbird eggs to be big. These are the smallest birds in the world, weighing little more than a penny. But let’s take a minute to appreciate their development from avian Tic Tac to independent bird. 

    First the female constructs an intricately woven nest from plant down, mosses, and carefully placed lichen. She uses spiderweb silk to line the inside. The spiderweb silk can expand as the chicks get bigger. That is so cool! 

    Click here to see more beautiful images from Tara Lemezis 

    The female sits on the eggs until they hatch and then cares for the blind, bald babies, darting out every 20 minutes and returning to offer regurgitated nectar and partially digested insects. 

    In 18-23 days, hummingbirds begin taking short forays out of the nest, and the mother focuses on helping them learn where to find nectar and how to forage for insects. And then they are off!

    Hummingbirds can fly upside down: TRUE!

    Flying backwards? No problem!

    Upside down? No big deal!


    When it comes to movement, I can’t think of a more agile creature than the hummingbird. Their seemingly effortless athletic skill is almost annoying!

    A hummingbird can rotate each of its wings in a circle, and is the only bird that can fly forwards, backwards, up, down, and sideways or hover in place. They’re capable of flying up to 60 miles per hour, their wings beating 80 times per second. Hummingbirds can even fly short distances upside down, a helpful trick when they are being attacked by another bird. 

    How can they do all this? Well, I can’t get deeply into hummingbird physiology here. But I will make an exception for one truly amazing thing – the construction of their tongues…Read on!

    A hummingbird’s tongue wraps around the inside of its skull: TRUE!

      Hummingbird eating mosquitoes  
    Before we geek out on hummingbird anatomy, let’s review the basics about what these little birds need to consume in order to keep up all their activity

    Hummingbirds feed on nectar from flowers and feeders, as well as on small insects and spiders. They catch flying insects on the wing and they pluck spiders and trapped insects from spider webs. They also visit sapsucker holes and feed on sap and insects attracted to the holes. 

    Hummingbirds need a lot of calories to fuel themselves and must eat several times their weight every day. They feed on nectar about 5-10 times per hour for 30-60 seconds each time. They have good eyesight, and they can see brightly colored red and orange flowers better than their insect competitors. 

    Figure 1. The hummingbird tongue as described in research by Alejandro Rico-Guevara 


    Given the exigency of their quest for nourishment, they are very lucky to have the most amazing tongues in the animal kingdom. If you asked me a month ago how hummingbirds get nectar from plants, I would have guessed that they lap it out like a dog or suck it up through a straw-shaped tongue. I would have been wrong.

    As you can see in Figure 1, hummingbirds have a long thin tongue that darts into the flower's corolla for nectar. When retracted, the hummingbird’s tongue is curled up in the skull and encircles the eye cavity. They share this feature with woodpeckers, whose tongue mitigates potential brain damage caused by incessant pecking. 

    But the precise mechanism by which the tongue captures nectar has been the focus of much scientific debate. Until recently, ornithologists thought the tongue functioned like a tiny, static tube, drawing up floral nectar via capillary action. However, ground-breaking research conducted by Alejandro Rico-Guevara at the University of Connecticut has shown that the tongue tip is a dynamic liquid-trapping device that changes its configuration and shape dramatically as it moves in and out of fluids. 

    You can get a sense of his findings from the lower four panels in Figure 1. The tongue starts out in a tube-like conformation. The two tips are close together. When the tongue touches the nectar, little structures called lamellae unfurl and the tips separate. When the tongue withdraws from the nectar, the lamellae roll inward, trapping the nectar as if into little cups. The tongue goes back in the beak with the lamellae compressed together to contain the nectar.

    Whether or not you are a science nerd, I guarantee that you will enjoy this brief PBS video on Rico-Guevara’s work on hummingbird tongues as well as this other short one on the same project.

    What Can You Do to Attract Hummingbirds to Your Yard?

    The Anna’s hummingbird is flourishing around here, but it can never hurt to expand their options, particularly in a drought. Also, it’s fun to watch them. Here are some ideas for what you can do to support your local hummingbirds. 

    Provide Nourishment

    California fuchsia (Epilobium canum)

    The topic of hummingbird feeders is somewhat controversial, but my reading suggests that red plastic feeders filled with sugar water are OK. Just don’t add red dye to the nectar and be sure to keep the feeders filled and clean. You don’t need to buy nectar; it’s easy to make it because the only ingredients are sugar and water. Here’s a recipe from the National Zoo. 

    The California Native Plant Society gives the feeders a tepid endorsement, noting that they “provide instant gratification” (I assume this means for the birds and the birdwatchers) but emphasizing the importance of also providing nectar-rich native plants that sustain hummingbirds without “additional human input.” 

    Go Native if You Can

    You can significantly improve the habitat in your yard by removing nonnative and invasive plants. Two that are quite problematic in Marin are English ivy and the less known Japanese knotweed.

    One of the best native plants for hummingbirds is the California Fuchsia, a perennial with lots of bright red flowers in summer and autumn. This plant will readily self-seed, and also spreads by rhizomes. 

    Keep Things a Bit Messy 

    As I have recommended in the past, it’s always good to go for variety and dishevelment rather than a pristine look in your yard. Piles of brush, sticks or yard refuse offer shelter, nesting habitat, nest-building materials, and insects. If you can, maintain a variety of native plants of varying sizes and growth patterns and with varying schedules for fruiting and leafing. 

    Don't Forget the Water!

    Providing water is particularly important in summer and especially during a drought. Birds will drink it and they can also use it to cool off. From time to time, hummingbirds need to clean pollen and nectar from their feathers and beak, but they have very short legs so they don't like to bathe in deep water. They prefer rubbing against a wet surface, or flying through moving water such as a sprinkler. If they do venture into still water, it has to be less than a centimeter deep. For drinking, they like to sip from flowing water, or drink from little drops such as a raindrop on a leaf.

    Keep Your Cats Indoors

    Domestic cats kill billions of birds every year. So keep your cats inside, and do what you can to keep stray cats out of your yard. Here are some ideas for discouraging interlopers, which are also depicted in the image below. 

    Avoid Pesticides and Rodenticides

    Toxic chemicals can kill birds or cause severe problems like reduced appetite and eggshell thinning. Also, the birds need bugs to eat! 

    Prevent Birds from Smacking into Your Windows.

    The thud of a bird hitting the window is pretty sickening. As many as 1 billion birds die each year from collisions with windows. Try putting stickers or tape on the problematic windows to make them more visible to birds. 

    FINAL THOUGHT: Give some love to the character actors of the bird world

    California Towhee
    Photo credit Becky Matsubara
    I think of the hummingbird as the Meryl Streep of the local bird ecology. Brilliant and beautiful, versatile and charismatic. But where would we be without the wonderful character actors in our films, the Kathy Bates’ and Cloris Leachmans? We need everyone’s talent to create an effective ensemble. With that in mind, I want to give a shout out to the most ordinary character actor of our local bird population: the California Towhee.

    Here is Jack Gedney’s description of the California Towhee:

    California towhees are large, chunky and clumsy birds, almost uniformly plain brown except for a rusty patch under their tail… Each yard typically hosts one pair of towhees who will remain on site all year round, staying in touch with simple, “low battery warning” contact calls. Also known for entering open house doors and attacking their reflection in mirrors. So, they’re plain, unmusical, and unintelligent. But everyone loves them!” 

    Much as I support the California Towhee, I must take issue with the final comment, as their incessant monotonous chirping has been known to drive some people in my family insane. 

    And, OK, comparing Kathy Bates to a California Towhee does not seem at all fair to Bates, who is brilliant in her own right. But I hope to make the point that we easily fall in love with the scary, smart, beautiful, or ultra-cute animals, but let’s be there for the non-flashy ones too.

    That’s it for this installment of the EFM Notebook. As always, please feel free to contact me with questions, comments and suggestions:

    As usual, thanks to Rob Badger and Nita Winter for sharing Rob’s beautiful image on the Notebook banner. Check out their award-winning book on wildflowers or visit their website to see more birds, flowers, and other images.

  • 1 Jun 2021 8:34 PM | Gayle Marsh (Administrator)
      Phoenix Lake on April 11, 2021
    No doubt you have noticed that things are looking a little brown and crispy outside. Not surprising, given that the past 16 months was the county’s driest period in 140 years. Current reservoir storage capacity is less than 50%, whereas it is usually 90% at this time of year. 

    Let’s take a look at what is causing the drought and how the county is responding to it. And, in case you are experiencing crisis fatigue like I am, we’ll explore some resources to guide and support you until the rains return.

    What is Causing the Drought?

    The rainfall pattern in California is very different from that in other parts of the country. Growing up in San Francisco, my concept of “raining” was a light misty sprinkling. I was in for a surprise when I moved to Massachusetts, where cartoonishly large rain drops hurtled from the sky for hours on end (when it wasn’t snowing). 

    In fact, the light sprinkling type of rainfall is typically interspersed in California with bigger storms caused by flowing columns of water vapor called atmospheric rivers. These rivers of moisture are the main drivers of our water supply, with a single big storm typically supplying around 15% of the year’s water. In general, they have been hitting California with more intensity than in earlier years, with attendant disastrous flooding and mudslides. 

    However, sometimes the atmospheric rivers don’t materialize, and then we suffer from drought. In the winter of 2017, California was pummeled by 51 atmospheric river storms, 14 of which were classified as strong or extreme. That wet winter marked the end of the state’s five-year drought. But during the winter of 2019-20, there were just 43 storms, only one of which was strong. This past winter saw 30 atmospheric river storms, only two of them strong. Media accounts of this pattern use terms like “whiplash” to describe this alternating pattern of extreme wet and dry weather.

    Living with a paradoxical increase in flooding and drought  
    Why have atmospheric rivers been scarce here in recent years? This year, as in the previous drought several years ago, they have been diverted northward to Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia by a high-pressure ridge of air parked off the state’s coastline. Scientists do not yet understand exactly why these “ridiculously resilient ridges” are afflicting us. 

    What we do know is that our water supply suffers without the rainfall contributed by atmospheric rivers, and some climate scientists argue that we should learn to embrace even the really strong ones. After all, the soil dries out more quickly now that the air is, on average, two degrees warmer than it was 50 years ago. Water from rainstorms and melting Sierra snow soaks into the parched soil instead of accumulating in rivers and reservoirs. So, as problematic as they are in terms of flooding, powerful atmospheric rivers may be more important to California’s future than we had previously realized.

      Marin’s current water crisis can be mitigated drop by drop through personal actions

    How is Marin Preparing for the Drought?

    In Marin, much of the preparation for drought conditions is being coordinated by the Marin Municipal Water District (MMWD), the agency that provides water to the majority of county residents. MMWD water is 100% locally sourced – 75% from seven reservoirs on Mt Tamalpais and 25% from the Russian River in Sonoma County. The North Marin Water district serves Novato and parts of West Marin; 80% of its water comes from Sonoma, and the other 20% is from Stafford Lake. 

    No such thing as a bad idea?  

    The MMWD board of directors began a public water conservation program in February of this year, with additional provisions and restrictions added in April and May. The newest restrictions are aimed at reducing water use by 40% districtwide. Some of the more important restrictions for households pertain to landscape irrigation (e.g., limit spray irrigation to two days a week, and drip irrigation to three days) and washing vehicles, driveways, and sidewalks (e.g, don’t!). Also, it’s important to fix leaks within 48 hours of discovering them (and you’ll get a rebate to cover the cost of repairs). 

    The MMWD also has suggestions for what you can do in your home during this crisis, including taking short showers, capturing and reusing water from showers, and waiting to run the dishwasher or washing machine until you have a full load.

    If you are a Marin resident, you can find an extensive array of well-written, sensible tips and suggestions for reducing your water consumption on the MMWD website.  You can also stop by a MMWD drought drive up event on Saturday June 12 and get a free water saving kit that includes, among other things a low-flow faucet aerator and showerhead as well as a five-minute shower timer. 


    To learn more about California’s response to the drought, I attended a virtual town hall meeting on the drought sponsored by Senator Mike McGuire on May 20. Speakers included representatives from Marin, Sonoma, and Mendocino County as well as the Yurok Tribe. One featured speaker was Ben Horenstein, the general manager of MMWD. He targeted lawn irrigation as a primary way to achieve the county’s 40% reduction goal. He underscored the fact that letting your lawn turn brown will probably not kill it, and you have to have faith that it will spring back to life when the rains finally come. 
    For anyone willing to wean themselves off of lawns entirely, MMWD offers a lawn replacement program consisting of free consulations and rebates for the purchase of sheet mulching materials, drip irrigation components, and climate-appropriate plants.

    Mulch, stones, succulents, and native plants can replace a lawn in a sustainable garden  

    Resilient Neighborhoods: Offering Support for Climate Action 

      Tamra Peters, founder of Resilient Neighborhoods    
    If you are a mere mortal, you may find the tips and suggestions from MMWD somewhat overwhelming. How can we get additional (non-website) support as we face these pressing need to conserve water and other precious environmental resources?  I have a suggestion: Sign up for a Resilient Neighborhoods workshop! It’s a free, five-session class for Marin residents on how to reduce your household’s carbon footprint and increase the resilience of your community to disasters. I just completed it and can vouch for its effectiveness. 

    The Resilient Neighborhoods program has been around since 2010, when it was created by long-time Marin resident Tamra Peters. Now with over 1,600 graduates, it is a fun and effective program for supporting important behavioral changes in households.

    Our Resilient Neighborhoods class at the final session of the workshop  

    During prepandemic times, members of an Resilient Neighborhoods workshop would meet at a library or other community space, but our pandemic-era class was a Zoom experience that included 13 households from around the county. Some of the participants in our group were already very aware of carbon reduction strategies while others were beginning the journey. Regardless of our starting place, all of us learned a lot and made substantial changes in our daily lives. 

    We started by gathering data needed to calculate our household carbon footprint. This involved confessions about the number of vehicles owned by household members and miles driven per year, flight miles traveled per person, household energy consumption, food choices (i.e., meat eater vs. vegan or vegetarian), and recycling habits. Tamra and Outreach Associate Jen Hammond used this data to calculate each household’s total CO2 emissions, which we subsequently shared with the group, all of whom were non-judgmental and supportive.

    With this reality starkly in mind, we then engaged in four more sessions where we learned how to take specific actions to reduce food and other types of waste, shift to a plant-based diet, cut CO2 emissions from our transportation, conserve energy and purchase electricity from renewable sources, prepare for climate-related emergencies, and contribute to building a climate movement.

    We each filled out a Climate Action Plan in which we selected from a checklist of over 100 actions that either reduce green-house gas emissions or build a community resilient to disasters created by climate change. The idea was to undertake the selected actions during the program or to pledge to take them in the coming year. These behavioral changes are supported with an amazing array of written resources that provided detailed, constructive guidance on how to achieve our specific goals. Each action is quantified in terms of contribution to carbon reduction or community resiliency. 

    Emergency preparedness leads to community resilience


    In the area of water conservation, the Plan offers a menu of 23 possible actions. In addition to the items recommended by the MMWD like limiting shower time, the list also includes some bigger-ticket actions like purchasing an Energy Star dishwasher or installing a WaterSense-labeled smart irrigation controller.  

    I was also interested in the Plan’s emergency preparation actions. I can proudly report that I assembled new emergency supply kits for my home and car and created a household preparedness plan that even has a place to sketch the floor plan of my home where I identify the location of my emergency supplies as well as shut-off points for gas, electricity, and water

    At the end of the course, Tamra and Jen tallied up our actions (and intended actions for the coming year), and each of us learned how many pounds of CO2 had been (or will be) saved by our actions. We also learned how many “resiliency points” we had earned through the actions supportive of community resilience to disaster.

    At the end of the workshop, our team’s actions accounted for an annual CO2 reduction of nearly 225,000 pounds and boosted the overall Resilient Neighborhoods program’s total reduction to over 9 million annual CO2 pounds. It was very inspiring to see concrete evidence that all our seemingly small changes added up to something substantial.  

    So go to and sign up for a climate action team. There are two new sessions starting in June!

    That’s it for this installment of the EFM Notebook. As always, please feel free to contact me with questions, comments and suggestions:

    As usual, thanks to Rob Badger and Nita Winter for sharing Rob’s beautiful image on the Notebook banner. Check out their award-winning book on wildflowers or visit their website to see more birds, flowers, and other images.

  • 15 May 2021 4:32 PM | Gayle Marsh (Administrator)

    In this time of political polarization there is one topic on which consensus may just be possible: Gas-powered leaf blowers (GLBs) are noisy and stinky, and they stir up dust tornados.  

    I concede that leaf blowers do a decent job of blowing leaves around. It’s no accident that there are over 11 million them in California.

    But let’s establish the harmful things that GLBs do as well.


    The most surprising thing I learned in my research for this post is that leaf blowers emit WAY more toxic emissions than cars. WAY WAY WAY more!

    For the best-selling commercial leaf blower, one hour of operation emits smog-forming pollution comparable to driving a 2016 Toyota Camry about 1100 miles, or approximately the distance from Los Angeles to Denver.

    Source: California Air Resources Board Factsheet


    The two-cycle engines used in GLBs are very inefficient; each one spews out, for instance, 11 pounds of CO2 per hour of use. This inefficiency relative to cars is a result of GLBs not being equipped with catalytic converters, which were introduced for car engines in 1975. Current versions of the catalytic converter reduce the emission of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, and nitrogen oxide.

    The small engines used in GLBs, lawn mowers, and weed whackers also emit large quantities of fine particulate matter, including black carbon.

    Black carbon released into the atmosphere raises air and surface temperatures, which of course damages plant and animal ecosystems. Black carbon is also acknowledged as a major cause of premature deaths and disability worldwide. Because it is so finely textured, the carcinogens that it contains are easily inhaled and released into the bloodstream.

    Another by-product of incomplete gasoline combustion is benzene, which causes leukemia and other blood cell cancers as well as cardiovascular, neurological and respiratory diseases.

    The spewing will continue unabated unless someone invents a mini catalytic converter for GLBs, or until they are banned.


    Most people would agree that GLB are loud, but can we be more precise? According to manufacturer reports, the sound pressure level of commercial-grade machines typically exceeds 95 decibels in the ear of the operator, a level that is directly associated with hearing loss. Even for people standing 50 feet away, the equipment produces a racket that exceeds the daytime sound standards of 55 decibels set by the World Health Organization.

    The low frequency of GLB noise is another issue. Low frequency sound travels farther and penetrates buildings more effectively than higher pitched sound. A GLB can negatively impact up to 90 surrounding homes in typical urban densities versus 6 homes for a powerful electric blower. All that ambient noise causes stress responses in humans, including raised cortisol levels. These stress responses are in turn associated with arterial hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    Living in a Dustbowl

    On a less catastrophic but nevertheless important note, GLBs can create clouds of whatever is in the air and on the ground. Pollens, fertilizers, pesticides, dirt, and other things are whipped into a cloud that wafts across yards, parks, and playgrounds. This is unpleasant for everyone in the vicinity, but is particularly dangerous for children, people with chronic asthma, and people who are exercising (hello, Marin).

    Ironically, all of the blowing also damages the plants themselves. When used in flower beds and lawns, GLBs blow topsoil away from the crowns of plants and damage their roots. They also compact the soil, making it harder for air and water to permeate, and they blow away dry fertilizers. And they kill the beneficial microbes in the soil by starving them to death, resulting in fewer nutrients in the soil for plant uptake.

    Looking for Solutions

    The inherent problems with GLBs have grabbed the attention of many homeowners. In the chart below, you can see that residential users are far more likely to own electric leaf blowers than gas-powered ones. In contrast, landscaping companies rarely use electric versions of these items. This suggests that community and state regulations should consider carefully the needs and constraints of both types of user.

    Source: Town of San Anselmo 2020 report

    Community Regulation of Leaf Blowers

    Many cities across the US have restricted the use of GLBs. Most town in Marin have adopted some kind of restriction on leaf blowers, starting with Mill Valley in 1993. These range from outright prohibitions on their use to limitations on hours or areas of use.

    For example, Corte Madera bans the use of GLBs entirely, but allows the use of electric blowers from 9 to 5 on weekdays and 10 to 4 on Saturdays.  In San Anselmo, motorized leaf blowers -- both gas and electric -- may only be used from 1:00 pm to 4:00 pm on Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays for a period not to exceed thirty minutes at a time per property.

    Check out this MMWD handbook for great landscaping ideas that require little leaf blowing!

    In unincorporated areas of Marin there is no specific restriction on landscaping equipment, including leaf blowers. To find out whether any actions were underway at the County level, I spoke with Crystal Martinez, aide to Marin County Supervisor Katie Rice. Ms. Martinez told me that the County takes the climate impact of GLBs very seriously and has been studying options for mitigating the damage. However, it is challenging to come up with a single policy that is equally well suited to communities as diverse as Kentfield, for example, and Point Reyes Station.

    What works in San Geronimo may not work in Kentfield!

    While implementing a policy focused on a single category of landscaping equipment may seem straightforward, the Marin towns that have adopted regulations on GLBs have experienced some challenges. For instance, while fines are theoretically imposed on repeat offenders, enforcing this regulation may not be a top priority for law enforcement officers. Additionally, enforcement officials often do not witness the infraction due to the transient nature of landscape work.

    Another challenge is related to the cost of new equipment to homeowners and especially to landscapers, many of whom are low-wage earners. Many are reluctant to impose additional financial burdens on workers from these communities.

    Some towns offer rebates toward the purchase of zero emissions equipment or have instituted an equipment buy-back program. These policies pose procedural challenges for towns that have instituted a ban, particularly concerning the process for providing rebates to landscapers who serve multiple communities. For more on the issues towns in Marin are facing, click here.

    The state of California also acknowledges the climate impact of GLBs. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) began regulating emissions of equipment that uses two-stroke engines in 1990, with subsequent amendments specifying increasingly stringent standards. In 2019 the State again scrutinized this category of equipment to help meet its goal of reducing pollutant emissions, and evidence from a recent CARB workshop indicates that the agency will be acting on a proposed requirement of zero-emissions equipment in the Fall of 2021.

    What Can You Do to Help?

    • Communicate your opinion on the topic of GLBs to your elected officials. Contact your County Supervisor or send a note to the California Air Resources Board ( urging them to ban GLBs in our state.
    • Embrace a messier look in your garden. Your yard will be a healthier and happier place for plants and bugs if there is some leaf litter to keep the soil rich and moist. Think of it as the horticultural equivalent of a messy bun – very trendy!

    • Reframe raking as bodybuilding. Raking can be an excellent way of strengthening your upper body. Fast raking may even qualify as a cardio activity.
    • Create a fun place to play by letting the leaves and grass cuttings pile up for a while!

    • Dig a bit deeper into your pocketbook. If you use a service, pay the landscaper to take the time to rake rather than blow your leaves. If blow you must, invest in an electric blower and ask the landscaper to use your equipment instead of a gas-powered machine.

    That’s it for this post! If you are a regular Notebook reader, you may know that this week marks the ONE YEAR ANNIVERSARY of the Notebook! Woohoo! 22 posts!!! It’s been so exciting for me to see this project come together over the past year. Special thanks go to graphic designer Gayle Marsh, who turns each post into a thing of beauty.

    And thanks once again to
    Rob Badger and Nita Winter
    for sharing the image we use
    for the Notebook banner!

  • 29 Apr 2021 6:24 PM | Gayle Marsh (Administrator)
      Who could resist this face?
    If you’ve spent time outdoors in Marin lately, you’ve probably noticed that you have a lot of furry new neighbors. During the pandemic, many of us have added a dog or cat to the household for companionship and diversion.

    Pets are wonderful but also pose some challenges, as you know if you’ve ever had a cat sit on your keyboard during a Zoom call. But what about the environmental impact of these beloved family members? 

    Let’s take a quick look at the challenges and how you can overcome them.

    Cats and Dogs Like Meat

    Relaxing on a lazy pandemic morning  

    You’ve probably heard about the carbon footprint created by our meat-centric diet in the US. Compared to a plant-based diet, meat requires more energy, land, and water to produce, and has greater environmental consequences in terms of erosion, pesticides and waste. Previous studies have found that livestock production produces the equivalent of 260 million tons of carbon dioxide in the US. 

    What about pets? In a paper published in 2017, UCLA geography professor Gregory Okin calculated that meat-eating by dogs and cats in the US creates the equivalent of about 64 million tons of carbon dioxide a year. 

    To put it another way, if the 160 million dogs and cats in the US were citizens of their own country, their nation would rank fifth in global meat consumption, behind only Russia, Brazil, the United States and China. 

    This is no “back-of-the-envelope” calculation! 

      Gnome-based protein    

    Can Fido and Fluffy Survive on Tofu Burgers?

    Should you consider a vegetarian diet for your dog — or maybe even go vegan? Dogs are omnivores, so they are capable of extracting key nutrients from plant-based sources. However, cats are carnivores. Their health will suffer if their diet is limited to plants.

    For instance, dogs and cats cannot make vitamin D in their skin like humans do, so it needs to be in their diet. Dogs can extract vitamin D2 from plants, but cats really need D3, which is only found in animal sources. 

    So if you go this route, be very conscientious about planning a balanced diet for your pet, and monitor their health carefully.

    What Else Can You Do?

        C’mon, this little Dumbo rat is cute
    There are other ways besides going vegetarian to reduce the carbon footprint associated with pet food.
    • Buy pet food in bulk to reduce wasteful packaging or cook your pet’s food from scratch. I used to cook for our family dog, Willy. It wasn’t too hard to make a pot of rice and mix it with cooked turkey burger and some vitamin supplements. 
    • Don’t create a chunky kitty (or dog)! Just by reducing pet overfeeding we could significantly lower meat production in the US.
    • Don’t give your dog prime rib! As pet pampering has increased, pet food is increasingly made with high-end meat. Professor Okin encourages us to make a commitment to snout-to-tail consumption as much as possible.
    • Consider a vegetarian pet, like a goat, bird, or rat! Rats (domestic ones, not the kind that run around in the ivy) are much smarter than hamsters or rabbits and don’t smell bad like pet mice. (Don’t ask me how I know all this…)

    Facing the Icky

    If you have spent any time on Nextdoor you know that few issues rile up readers more than dog poop disposal habits (i.e., is it OK to put bagged poop in someone else’s garbage can). I will focus here on the environmental impact of how we dispose of pet waste.

    Problems With Dog Poop

    “I’d prefer if you didn’t discuss my poop”  

    First, let’s face the cold, hard facts. With dogs, inevitably, comes poop. One source I found stated that dogs in Marin generate 11 million pounds of waste per year. If the owners pick it up, most of it goes in the landfill along with the plastic bags that are used to collect it.

    Here I turn again to Dr. Okin at UCLA, who writes, ”If all of the feces from US dogs and cats, not including kitty litter and bags, were disposed as garbage, their feces would be equivalent to the total garbage produced by 6.63 million Americans, or approximately the population of Massachusetts.”

    Dog waste is considered to be an environmental pollutant by the Environmental Protection Agency because it can harbor viruses, bacteria and parasites — including harmful pathogens like e coli, giardia and salmonella. Studies have traced 20 to 30 percent of the bacteria in water samples from urban watersheds to dog waste. 

    In most cases, people prefer to pick up dog poop with plastic bags. It’s pretty well established that plastic bags contribute tremendously to our plastic trash problem. In the US, 14 billion plastic bags are consumed annually. These bags can have devastating effects on wildlife, especially marine animals like whales and sea turtles. For more, take a look at my prior posts on plastics.

    The plastic bag is never going to be a good candidate for recycling. The economic realities of cheap new plastic production and low-cost oil and gas production make mechanical and chemical recycling processes economically uncompetitive and impractical at commercial scale. 


    What about “compostable” pet waste bags? 

    Some pet waste bags, like Biobags, are made from renewable sources like cornstarch. They are not, however, compostable except under special conditions. Composting requires specific levels of heat, water, and oxygen. But local landfill usually cannot provide these conditions. 

    Nor are they accepted at composting facilities in many communities! 

    In Marin, most green waste is delivered to WM EarthCare in Novato. WM EarthCare does not accept Biobags because they do not meet their standards for organic material. 

    So if you are served by Marin Sanitary Service, Tamalpais Community Services District, Mill Valley Refuse, Recology Sonoma Marin, or Novato Disposal — all of whom use WM EarthCare — you should not put “compostable” green pet waste bags in the compost bin. 

    The green waste from the communities of Sausalito and Marin City served by Bay Cities Refuse is delivered to the compost facility in West Contra Costa County; this facility accepts BioBags.

    Source: Screen shot of WM website.

    Moreover, because of the aforementioned bacteria and other gross stuff in dog poop, pet waste in a biobag can’t be publicly composted even if a facility has the capability of dealing with the bag! 

      Pilot project with digester in Cambridge MA  
      Composting Corgi waste at home  

    Wave of the Future? Convert Poop to Energy

    Dog waste can be anaerobically digested — a process that breaks down organic materials, producing a biogas that can be used for energy and a residue that can be used as a compost on plants. California has funded over 100 digester projects on dairy farms, with significant reduction of methane emissions from cow manure. Straus Family Creamery is one particularly successful example because the digester is one dimension of a multi-pronged approach to the environmental problems associated with the dairy business. 

    This technology can be adapted for processing dog waste and is being tested in several pilot projects with anaerobic digesters at dog parks in the United States. 

    In the Meantime, What Else Can You Do?
    • Flushing dog poop down the toilet is OK in some sewage facilities. Check out the situation in your area if you want to try this.
    • Composting is possible in some situations. Municipalities with curbside composting programs typically discourage people from putting dog waste in their compost bins. Composting dog waste in a backyard bin can be iffy. It's hard to achieve the temperatures needed to kill off pathogens but give it a try if you are looking for a project.

    Problems With Cat Litter

    Cat practicing jazz hands  
    Increasingly, Americans are keeping their cats indoors for their own protection as well as that of the bird population. In my youth, the problem was keeping cat poop out of the sandbox. Now cat owners have to think about disposal of cat waste and cat litter from in-home litter boxes. 

    I imagine most people are OK with scooping used cat litter into a paper bag rather than a plastic one for disposal. But the litter itself poses a different problem. I am out of poop-related visual imagery, so I leave it to you to imagine all the waste and litter generated by the 90 million or so cats in the US (equivalent of the Great Wall of China stretching from San Francisco to Manhattan????)

    More recently, companies have developed better options that use renewable resources like corn, grass seed, and wheat. Others are made of wood chips or recycled newspaper. Frugal cat owners might consider making their own cat litter by repurposing everyday materials that would otherwise end up in the waste stream. Plain sawdust apparently makes good cat litter, or you could make cat litter from old newspapers if you are crafts-oriented. 

    That’s it for this post! If you want to read more about pets and the environment, check out this recent article.

    Thanks to Rob Badger and Nita Winter
    for sharing Rob’s beautiful image. 
    Check out their award-winning book or
    visit their website to see more!


  • 15 Apr 2021 1:27 PM | Gayle Marsh (Administrator)

    Clover’s new organic milk carton


    In today’s post I address a question from a Notebook reader about the new carton that Clover Sonoma dairy is using for their organic milk. 

    Wendy asks, “If the new Clover milk carton is made of renewable materials does that mean it can be recycled or composted?”

    To address that question, let’s take a look at the new cartons, which Clover rolled out last year.

    Like conventional cartons, the new carton is made primarily of paper from trees. Unlike conventional cartons, the paperboard is sandwiched between two strips of liner made from a bioplastic derived from sugar cane. Conventional cartons use plastic liners made from petroleum or natural gas.

    The paper and bioplastic used to make the new carton are renewable resources, meaning those that will grow back in the span of a human life. And, compared to conventional cartons, their manufacture results in less emission of greenhouse gases. Plus, they are somewhat better able to biodegrade in soil and compost than are conventional plastics.

    Still, cultivation of any crop can negatively affect the environment unless farmers use responsible practices like crop rotation and responsible irrigation, as well as avoiding pesticides and certain fertilizers. 

    On balance, bioplastics get a cautious thumbs up in comparison to packaging made from conventional plastics, particularly if these renewable components are farmed sustainably!

    What the heck are bioplastics?

    Now, let’s turn directly to Wendy’s question!

    It seems logical that a product containing all renewable material should be recyclable, or even compostable. Right???

    But before you start flinging your Clover cartons enthusiastically into the recycling or compost bin, check your waste processing facility website!

    If you live in San Francisco, you can recycle all paper milk and juice cartons as long as they are clean and dry, whether the liners are made from conventional plastic or bioplastic.

    But, in Marin it depends on who your waste hauling company is. Residents served by Recology, such as those in Novato, can recycle any clean milk carton.

    But, in Marin it depends on who your waste hauling company is. Residents served by Recology, such as those in Novato, can recycle any clean milk carton. But if your waste is handled by Marin Sanitary or the Tamalpais Community Services District (TCSD), you cannot recycle or compost either the conventional or the renewable milk cartons. Check out the Marin Sanitary website:


    Where Should You Put the New Clover Milk Cartons? 

    Although the Clover milk cartons say “rinse and recycle”, with all products it is important to check with your local recycler to see if they have a market to recycle that item. Unfortunately, we do not have a way to recycle these cartons, so they still must go in the landfill.

    Additionally, we cannot compost these cartons either. Although the plastic is “renewable and plant-based”, the resin itself still behaves like conventional plastic and will not break down in the compost.

    (excerpt from the Marin Sanitary website)


    So, kudos to Clover Sonoma, long an industry leader in terms of animal welfare and environmental protection, for their pioneering development of sustainable packaging.  

    But like it or not, we consumers need to do our own research to make we sure we know where the cartons should go when the delicious organic milk is gone! 

    Yes, we consumers can be more careful but how about limiting manufacture of these items?

    In a future post, I will try to get to the bottom of all this regional variability in terms of what is or is not recyclable. Is there a chance of getting uniform standards for waste disposal before we all go mad? Stay tuned!

    And in the meantime, please send me your burning questions about local environmental issues. If I use your question in a post, I will even send you a complimentary EFM water bottle!

    That’s it for this installment of the EFM Notebook!

    Thanks to Rob Badger and Nita Winter
    for sharing Rob’s beautiful image. 
    Check out their award-winning book or
    visit their website to see more!


  • 31 Mar 2021 8:25 AM | Gayle Marsh (Administrator)

    Time for a turtle quiz! True or False?

      A glimpse at turtle anatomy

    1. Baby turtles are extremely cute.

    Answer: True!

    2. Turtle fossils have been found from the Triassic period.

    Answer: True! Turtle fossils from 220 million years ago show that turtle anatomy in prehistoric times was nearly identical to that of modern turtles.

    3. Turtles are among the only animals that can breathe with their butts.

    Answer: True!!!! Many turtles can use their cloaca to breathe when they are underwater. Essentially the cloaca doubles as a set of gills, sucking in water and absorbing the oxygen within.

    4. Native turtles are plentiful in California’s lakes, ponds, and rivers.

    Answer: False! The only native freshwater turtle in California is rapidly disappearing and is now listed as a species of concern by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The situation is also dire in Washington and Oregon.

    How did you do on the quiz? If you are like me, you may have gotten the first two right but were dead wrong on the third and fourth. 

    So let’s take a little time to learn about these creatures that are so familiar and yet exotic. And let’s find out what steps are being taken to save them from extinction. (Spoiler alert: I won’t be going further into the topic of cloacal respiration but you can look it up if you are interested.)

    Status of Native Turtles in Northern California

    Western Pond Turtle  

    On the West Coast of the US, the only remaining native freshwater turtle is the Western Pond Turtle (Actinemys marmorata) and they are in deep trouble. The US Fish and Wildlife Service considers the Western Pond Turtle a “species of special concern,” and they are listed as an endangered species in Washington State.

    Why are these once ubiquitous creatures disappearing?  One problem is competition from the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). These are the turtles sold in pet stores; however, they are sometimes "released to the wild" by owners who can no longer care for them. Red-eared sliders are bigger and more aggressive than the shy pond turtle and compete ruthlessly with them for food. Also, they harm pond turtles by taking up their basking space. This is a problem because turtles depend on the sun to regulate their body temperature, and typically spend hours every day basking on rocks and logs.

      Red-eared slider: Nemesis of the pond turtle
    Other invasive species are a menace as well. The small and vulnerable baby pond turtle is particularly at risk for predation by non-native bullfrogs as well as small-mouth and big-mouth bass. 

    Habitat loss is another problem for the pond turtle in areas that are urbanizing. In addition to an aquatic environment, where pond turtles spend most of their time, the females need to access sunny, grassy areas for nesting. In Marin, fire suppression efforts have created a shadier environment, making it harder for them to find good nesting sites. The further they travel the greater their risk of being hit by cars. Additionally, agricultural and vegetation management activities can disturb the habitat and destroy their nests. 

      Adult turtles are secondary and tertiary consumers in pond ecologies

    Head Start for Turtles

    The absence of an important species like the pond turtle can have a profound effect on the surrounding ecosystem. Juvenile turtles provide a source of food for larger predators, and juveniles and adults feed on various invertebrates and insects. Moreover, as denizens of the water and the land, turtles are important indicators of the health of these ecosystems.

    So, in addition to managing invasive species and preserving habitat, what else can be done to prevent the pond turtle from going extinct?

    I recently attended a Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy webinar describing current efforts to reintroduce the pond turtle to southern Marin County, where it had not been seen since 1998. The Head Start Project, a joint effort by multiple local partners, began four years ago and will continue for one more year. It is one of many similar projects being conducted in all three Western states. 

    Pond turtle in paradise  

    The five-year project has proceeded in three phases: hatching and rearing young turtles, releasing them, and monitoring their welfare.

    The first step was to locate nests and “borrow” eggs for relocation. Park staff in Pt Reyes, where there is a fairly stable population of pond turtles, searched high and low for turtle nests. This was no easy task because these turtles can roam as much as one third of a mile from their water source in search of a good spot for a nest. The nesting process begins with the female excavating a hole, depositing from 1 to 13 eggs, and then filling up the chamber with soil and plant material. To learn more, read this excellent article, which is accompanied by great photos and a video of the nesting process. 

      Pond turtle hatching at the Woodland Park Zoo in Washington State  
      Released turtle  
      Two-month-old turtle swimming at SF Zoo  
      Biologist Gabi Dunn releasing a turtle  
    The second step was to take the eggs to Sonoma State University for their incubation period. In the wild, incubation takes about three months, depending on the conditions. Typically, juveniles that hatch in the summer make their way to water soon after emerging; those hatching in the winter may stay at the nesting site until the weather warms up. In any case they are on their own, with no help from mom.

    In the Head Start project, the newly hatched babies were transmitted to the San Francisco Zoo where they were cared for by zoo staff for about a year. Under these protected conditions they were able to grow three times as fast as turtles in the wild, quickly becoming “bigger than a bullfrog’s mouth” and thus able to avoid the clutches of the most dangerous predators. 

    To keep track of these precious creatures, staff glued a radio transmitter to the shell, each with a unique frequency so that the individual could be easily identified. The turtles also had an ID number painted on their shell.

    When the release day arrived in this past year, 20 of the youthful turtles were transported to the Rodeo Lagoon Watershed and 14 were taken to the Redwood Creek Watershed (see map for location of these watersheds). Another 7 were released in several ponds in Point Reyes. Twenty turtles had already been released through the program in the Redwood Creek Watershed in a previous year.  

    Each turtle was monitored on a weekly basis to be sure that it was adapting successfully to its new environment. Later in the year, the staff set out net traps to catch the turtles for weighing, measuring, and a general welfare checkup, as well as to repair the transmitter if necessary.

    So far, thanks to all of this meticulous care, most of the turtles released for the Head Start project are doing fine. Monitoring will continue for the fifth and final year of the project. Similar programs in Oregon and Washington have resulted in the successful release of over a thousand pond turtles.

    What Can You Do to Help the Pond Turtle?

    Use iNaturalist to monitor wildlife

    You can start by using the iNaturalist app to document the location of any and all turtles that cross your path. You can do this citizen science work on your own or in coordination with established projects. For example, visitors at the MidPeninsula Regional Open Space Preserve have been asked to record turtle observations for the Midpen Biodiversity Index on iNaturalist.

      Turtles on TV: Friendly, mellow, and funny….

    Turtles aside, this app is very easy to use and a fun way to increase your engagement with the wildlife around you. Your kids might think it would be fun to identify a species commonly found in your area and then see if they can go out and find a member to photograph and add to the database. 

    Think carefully before acquiring a pet turtle

    If you are tempted to get a pet turtle (or any other pet for that matter) do a lot of research about its care before you take the plunge.  I learned this the hard way. When my son was 8 and in the thrall of four fun-loving cartoon ninja turtles, he asked for an aquatic turtle, and I naively agreed to get one. 

    Turtles in real life: Grouchy introverts that live forever

    Fast forward 26 years…the turtle still resides in my home, although my son himself has not lived here since 2005. First lesson learned: Turtles live a really long time if you take care of them properly. Second lesson learned: Taking care of them properly involves a lot of work. 

    If you do have a turtle that you can no longer care for, don’t set it free where it will terrorize the native turtles. Instead, find a rescue organization like Creepy Critters Rescue that will care for it. 

    Support programs to reintroduce turtles

    Keep your eyes open for a turtle monitoring program such as that sponsored by the Marin Municipal Water District. In the past, MMWD volunteers have learned to monitor turtle habitat conditions, record their behavior, and educate the public during the spring when they are most visible. This is a flexible activity that families can do together, so it is a good opportunity to help children learn about wildlife in their area.

    That’s it for this installment of the EFM Notebook! Thanks to Rob Badger and Nita Winter for sharing Rob’s beautiful image. Check out their award-winning book or visit their website to see more!


  • 8 Mar 2021 7:44 PM | Gayle Marsh (Administrator)
    Eastwood’s Larkspur (Delphinium parryi ssp. Eastwoodiae) Alice Eastwood
    During the nineteenth century, especially in Europe, many important discoveries were made by so-called “gentleman scientists,” men born into wealthy families who pursued scientific inquiry as a hobby rather than a vocation. Charles Darwin was able to sail around the world for five years and then return home to write “On the Origin of Species” and other works, all the while supported by funding from investments managed by his father.

    What of the gentlewoman scientist? They are fewer in number but all the more interesting because of the societal barriers they had to overcome in order to pursue their passion for science. Let’s meet Alice Eastwood, a local hero who became one of the world’s most influential botanists.

    Born in 1859 in Toronto, Eastwood lived with her working-class parents and siblings until her mother died when Alice was six. After spending years living in a convent, Alice and her sister were reunited with their father, a janitor, who had moved to Denver. Alice eventually completed high school but unlike most “gentlemen scientists” she received no post-secondary education. 

    Alice Eastwood with her plant frame   

    By all accounts, Eastwood was extraordinarily intelligent and outgoing. She also had the physical stamina of an athlete. After moving to Denver, she began hiking throughout the Rockies to collect plant specimens, the beginning of a lifelong quest to find and identify plants throughout the world. Eventually she moved to California where she roamed throughout the Sierras as well as up into the Cascades. She was often alone on these early trips, but as professional botanists came to know and respect her, she was frequently accompanied by collaborators.

      A. canescens, a species of manzanita identified by Eastwood
    After arriving in San Francisco, she began working as a curator in the newly established California Academy of Sciences (CAS). By 1894 she had been promoted to Head of the Department of Botany, a position she held until 1949. After the 1906 earthquake and fire, as the CAS building lay in ruins, Eastwood and another employee climbed a crumbling staircase to the sixth floor where they wrapped the 1500 most important plant specimens in packets. They then lowered each packet by rope out the window to the street below, and had them taken by wagon to a safe place outside of the burning area. Under her direction, the plant collection eventually grew to over 300,000 specimens. 

    Although Alice Eastwood always lived in rented rooms in San Francisco, she loved Mt Tamalpais and often spent the weekend collecting plants there. She was fascinated by manzanitas (Arctostaphylos) and called attention to at least five new species on the mountain.

    It is hard to overstate Eastwood’s contribution to our understanding of plant life in Marin. Between her work and that of her successor at CAS, John Thomas Howell, we have an inventory of plants on Mt Tam that spans nearly one hundred years, a hugely valuable baseline for ongoing documentation of the changes to plant life on the mountain.

    Citizen Scientists and the Sea Star

    Toward the middle of the 20th century, amateur scientists like Alice Eastwood became less common as scientific research became the province of highly trained academics with substantial funding from public and private institutions. In recent years, however, the role of citizen scientists has again gained legitimacy in the natural and social sciences. How can naturalistic observation by nonprofessionals contribute to scientific knowledge these days? 

    Ochre sea stars  

    The most common use of citizen scientists has been to count things or measure them within the confines of a delineated plot of land or sea. Citizen scientists count Monarch butterflies in an attempt to understand their precipitous decline, for example. Equally important are the citizen scientists monitoring the massive die-off among the sea star population from Baja California up to Alaska. 

    Sunflower sea stars  

    The primary vehicle of this epidemic event is sea star wasting syndrome, in which the sea star literally dissolves within a matter of days. The cause of the syndrome may be related to a little understood virus; climate change and ocean acidification may also be implicated. Millions of sea stars have died since 2013, and in some places there are literally none left. 

    There have been tantalizing resurgences of sea star populations in some areas, but the reason for these changes is poorly understood and no one knows whether these renewed communities will continue to flourish.

    Two formerly common but now nearly extinct species of sea star are the ochre sea star and the sunflower sea star. They have a wide diet, including mussels, barnacles, snails, limpets, sea urchins, and chitons. They have few predators, although seagulls and sea otters occasionally eat them.  

    A barren kelp forest overrun with urchins


    This decline in the sea star population has triggered a “trophic cascade,” a domino effect when a failure at the top of the hierarchy affects species located the next level down, which in turn affect the level below them. The demise of the sea star has led to a huge increase in mussels and sea urchins which have then consumed the kelp forests that supply habitats for marine life and also help in sequestering carbon. In California, 90% of the kelp forests have been lost. It’s a catastrophe.

    How can citizen scientists help? The Multi-Agency Rocky Intertidal Network (MARINe) is a large consortium of research groups working with citizen scientists to collect compatible data that are entered into a centralized database. Long-Term Monitoring and Biodiversity Surveys occur throughout the year at sites ranging from Southeast Alaska to Mexico. 

    One species that has been selected for annual monitoring is the ochre sea star (Pisaster ochraceous). In this project, researchers train citizen volunteers in species identification, proper measurement techniques and disease category designation, and accompany them in the field to assist with site selection. This numerical data, along with photographic evidence of diseased individuals, is then combined with that from other groups to track the occurrence of wasting disease on a local and coast-wide scale. 

    Go to the MARINe website to see how you can become involved!

    Duxbury Reef near Bolinas with
    demarcated data collection sites


    Engaging Youth in Citizen Science

      Heidi Ballard

    As important as it is for adults to become engaged in citizen science, it’s also crucial that kids begin learning how to address our environmental challenges. Professor Heidi Ballard at UC Davis and her colleagues at the Center for Citizen and Community Science (CCCS) have conducted a number of projects that help students engage in scientific research in their own communities.

    One project sponsored by the CCCS is a long-term ecological monitoring study of milkweed plants and the monarch butterflies that rely on them. High school students participate as summer interns, measuring the plants and keeping track of the activity of monarchs that visit them.

    In addition to absorbing the basic science content, the interns learn how to communicate the findings to the public and how to take responsibility for the quality of their data. They also begin to self-identify as experts (hmmm, be careful what you wish for!).

    Participants in a CCCS program for middle school children

      Saba Island…Remind me to conduct my next research project there!

    Participatory Action Research: Citizen Scientists as Advocates

    As the environmental movement becomes increasingly aware of the disproportionate impact of climate change on low-income communities, new initiatives are underway to ensure that scientific inquiry focuses effectively on the results of racial and economic injustice. Participatory action research (PAR) is a type of citizen science that engages community members in data collection with respect to issues of pressing concern to their communities. 

    Once these issues are identified, citizen scientists participate in figuring out how to collect relevant data, how to analyze it, and how to find solutions based on the research results. The role of the professional researcher is to facilitate and participate in the process.

    Source: Eelderink, Vervoot, & van Laerhoven (2020)

    One example may help illustrate. On a Caribbean island called Saba, a nature conservancy noted an alarming decline in the local shark population. A participatory action research project was proposed to find solutions to the disappearing shark problem based on understanding the perspectives of all the local stakeholders, including local fishing families, conservationists, and local government and church representatives. 

    Initial interviews revealed something very important…there was little interest among community members in saving sharks! Given this basic mismatch between the perceptions of the nature conservancy and those of the community, finding effective solutions to the problem could prove to be difficult.


    Campaign promoting the consumption
    of lionfish

    However, subsequent exchanges revealed that community members had serious concerns about the declining population of redfish, the main catch for local fisherfolk and divers. They attributed this decline to overfishing as well as predation by an invasive species called the lionfish. Community members were also concerned about damage to the local coral reef.

    Lengthy conversations and negotiations resulted in a decision to introduce a yearly recovery period for the redfish. Funds were also obtained for the development of more effective traps for capturing lionfish. Lionfish are pretty tasty, and a local campaign was developed to encourage visitors and community members to start eating more of them. Their sale provided a source of income during the season when fishing for redfish was not permitted. 

    And to top it off, the increased redfish population and reduced lionfish population has a positive effect on the shark population because…wait for it…sharks prey on redfish but not on lionfish! As the marine ecology regains its balance, the coral reef is expected to recover, providing additional ecological benefits for sharks. Win, win, win!

    Calling All Citizens

    Everyone can get into the act!  
    There are lots of opportunities in Marin to become a citizen scientist. 

    For starters, you can participate in City Nature Challenge 2021. This event got started in 2016 as a competition between San Francisco and Los Angeles to see how many different plant and animal species residents could photograph in their respective urban settings. It is now an international event, with hundreds of cities participating all around the world. This year, all volunteers will take pictures of wildlife between April 24th and 27th, and then load them into a common database to be identified in the subsequent week by experts. Check out their website to find out how to get involved. 

    Have you heard of the Marin Wildlife Picture Index Project, a One Tam long-term monitoring program of mammals on Mt Tam? Millions of images have been collected through a network of motion-activated cameras on the mountain, and hundreds of volunteers have helped to identify the species captured on film. As the pandemic subsides the opportunities for citizen science will flourish, so keep an eye on their website.

    Also, I recommend a book by local author Mary Ellen Hannibal called Citizen Scientist: Searching for Heroes and Hope in an Age of Extinction. In this book, she describes her participation in an astonishing number of citizen science projects around the Bay Area. And she takes you through the development of the citizen-science movement as well as her personal journey as she struggles with the sudden death of her father. Whether you want to count raptors or slosh around in tide pools, Hannibal’s book will get you going.

    That’s it for this installment of the EFM Notebook!

    Thanks to Rob Badger and Nita Winter for sharing Rob’s beautiful image. Check out their award-winning book or visit their website to see more!


  • 17 Feb 2021 12:57 PM | Gayle Marsh (Administrator)
      Dung beetles have a charm of their own
    For the last ten years, researchers have amassed considerable evidence that the insect population worldwide is experiencing a sharp decline, with many species becoming extinct. To date, most of us have focused on the collapse of a few species like the honeybee and the Monarch butterfly.

    It’s comparatively hard to get people to worry about, for example, the devastating drop in dung beetles in the Mediterranean countries. (Wait a second…a quick internet search shows I may not be right about dung beetles. They have a lot of fans out there.)

    But there are many reasons to worry about cute as well as noncute insects. Without an abundant and diverse population of insects neither we nor the charismatic vertebrates will survive either. The loss of a gnat deprives a bird of food, which is then not available to pollinate the plants needed to feed the antelope that is in turn a source of food for the gorgeous cheetah. It’s the circle of life, people!

      ”I’ll eat anything” “Nothing but milkweed for me”

    Abundance vs. Diversity

    Data emerging from studies world-wide suggests that warnings of an insect apocalypse are no exaggeration. For instance, a comprehensive research review published in 2019 by Sánchez-Bayo and Wyckhuys estimated that more than 40% of insect species are threatened with extinction. And the overall number of insects is also dropping, at a rate of 2.5% per year.

    Factors Associated with Insect Declines (Source: Sánchez-Bayo & Wyckhuys)

    Why focus on both diversity and abundance? Well, if a region is abuzz with bees that’s great, but if they are all from the same species then we lose the benefits that members of those lost species provide.

    Most highly successful species are generalists in the sense that they will eat anything. I am looking at you, cockroaches and opossums! Meanwhile, those with more specific dietary preferences are much more vulnerable if their sole food source is not available.

    The most powerful driver of insect decline is habitat destruction caused by intensive agriculture, urbanization, and deforestation as well as pollutants such as pesticides and fertilizers.

    These same factors are also contributing to a global decline in biodiversity, of which the insect apocalypse is one important part.

    Learning to Share in Urban Spaces: A Conversation with Dr. Paul da Silva

      Paul da Silva
    In order to zero in on the situation in Marin, I spoke with Dr. Paul da Silva, a local expert in environmental science and resource management. Paul earned a PhD in Entomology from UC Berkeley in 1994. He was a professor at the College of Marin from 1997 until 2020, teaching classes in biology, botany, environmental landscaping, and entomology. He is also a newly elected member of the College of Marin Board of Trustees.

    Paul began our conversation by introducing me to the concept of “spare or share,” a debate among environmentalists as to whether it is more important to spare large tracts of land for nature’s exclusive use, or to share with nature by finding ways to integrate biodiversity conservation into human landscapes.

    Entomologists like E. O. Wilson have long advised that we spare 50 percent of the earth’s land surface for pristine nature, finding ways to manage agricultural activities and urban development in the remaining half.

    However, strong arguments for sharing have been made by others, including Kremen and Merenlender at UC Berkeley, who favor “working lands” conservation. They argue for the establishment of buffer zones surrounding open space to protect habitat and resources for some species while facilitating dispersal and climate change adaptation for others.

    Expanding our Horizons

    How can we create effective ways of sharing space in the urban and suburban landscapes in Marin and throughout the Bay Area? Paul da Silva is particularly adamant that we include as many native plants in our gardens and public spaces as possible in order to support insect diversity.

    Why has this goal been harder to achieve than you might have thought? Paul identifies one stumbling block, noting that we humans are generalists and that makes it hard for us to realize that many of our local insects need specific native plants in order to survive.

    Also, in Marin we can grow a huge variety of gorgeous plants from all over the world. I admit that I am very partial to Japanese gardens and have definitely strayed from a steady diet of Manzanita! But the more I have learned about the native options, the more able I am to create an interesting garden from ecologically supportive plants.

    Looking at the Lawn

    To mow or not to mow…  
    Any move in the direction of biodiversity requires close scrutiny of our county’s abundant lawns. Lawns are prized for their appearance and they are great for running around on. But they do little to enhance insect diversity.

    Paul suggests that we reflect on the following goals before putting in a lawn: How desirable is the aesthetic look of a homogenous green lawn? Do we want the space to hold up to a lot of foot traffic? How prepared are we to put in the time and costs associated with mowing, fertilizing, watering, and weeding? And how important are the environmental goals of avoiding pesticides, enhancing biological diversity, maximizing carbon sequestration, and increasing soil permeability?

    Then, having identified our goals, how do we figure out what to actually do? To help us take this next step, Paul has developed a taxonomy of ten types of lawn or lawn substitute. Each contains a particular grouping of plants that meets a particular constellation of goals. Here are four types that are most consistent with the goals pertaining to enhanced diversity and that require relatively little maintenance.

    •   Meadow garden
        Ground iris and
      Mariposa lily

        Dwarf coyote brush and Ceanothus

      Creeping thyme and Clover

      If you highly value the environmental goals, do not want to devote time and money to mowing, watering, etc., and do not want to use the space for tossing around a frisbee, you can consider a meadow garden. A meadow garden approximates a native California meadow, with bunchgrasses like California or blue fescue, needlegrass, or deergrass mixed in with flowering herbs like California poppies and lupines.
    • If you share those environmental goals but would really like to be able to walk or run around in the space, you can create a meadow lawn. A meadow lawn does not include bunchgrasses, so it can be mowed occasionally and can withstand some foot traffic. Thingrass is useful for this type of lawn, along with some forms of red fescue. Paul suggests the use of perennial native plants like the suncup, ground iris, mariposa lily, soap lily, and blue dick.
    • Moving farther away from a grass-like lawn, you can plant the space with a woody groundcover. It’s best to avoid the invasive non-natives (e.g., ivy), and think in terms of California natives like dwarf coyote brush or ceanothus as well as low-growing manzanitas. These native plants are particularly good for sequestering carbon, compared to the herbaceous plants in the meadow garden and lawn. They do require some weeding, but little or no water.
    • If you really want to be able to walk and run around on the lawn and are willing to sacrifice some of the environmental objectives, consider a bee lawn. Bee lawns typically include the kinds of grass used in conventional lawns along with compatible plants that provide nectar or pollen for bees. Some common examples are clovers and creeping thyme. You can mow these just as you would a conventional lawn and will need to water and fertilize them as well.

    Paul’s lawn matrix really helped me think through my options as I continue to transition toward using native plants in my yard. Click here if you want the details.

    Last Thoughts on Biodiversity

    One Tam
    I also learned some good news about biodiversity in Marin from a webinar recently sponsored by One Tam.

    The webinar, Birds and Bees of Mt. Tam, featured two great talks, one by Renee Cormier, avian ecologist at Point Blue and the other by Gretchen LeBuhn, professor in the Department of Biology at San Francisco State. Both scientists described their own recent research to document the abundance and diversity of species in various regions and ecosystems within Marin.
    Some highlights from their talks:

    • LeBuhn’s team found that Marin supports a high diversity of bee species. Particularly exciting was the diversity found in the coastal chaparral sites, which are less often studied and about which little is known.
    • Cormier and her team found evidence that most landbird species in the Marin Municipal Water District are stable or increasing relative to numbers represented in data collected as early as 1996. She also noted that the nationally threatened Northern Spotted Owl is doing well in Marin, possibly because few Barred Owls have entered the county.

    Contact One Tam to access the video from this webinar, which was held on February 11. You may have to become a member first, but that’s not a bad idea either!

    That’s it for this installment of the EFM Notebook! Thanks very much to Dr. Paul Da Silva for sharing his ideas for enhancing biodiversity here in Marin.

    Banner photo credit: Thanks to Rob Badger and Nita Winter for sharing Rob’s beautiful image. 
    Check out their award-winning
    book or visit their website to see more!

  • 12 Jan 2021 9:54 AM | Gayle Marsh (Administrator)
      Monarch resting
    on an Aster
    Question: Bees, birds, bats, flies, moths, and butterflies…what do they have in common besides the ability to fly? 

    Answer: They are all pollinators, and absolutely essential to the survival of plants throughout the world. 

    In this post I focus on butterflies, particularly the Western Monarch. You may already know that the Western Monarch is on the brink of disappearing. The situation in Marin is particularly dire. An article in the Point Reyes Light recently reported on local efforts spearheaded by Mia Monroe and Morgan Patton to count the Monarchs at Marin overwintering sites: “So far this year, 150 monarchs were counted in Bolinas, five in Stinson Beach and two in Muir Beach.” In contrast, 22,253 Monarchs were counted in Bolinas, for example, in 2015.

    Monroe and Patton cite a variety of general causes for the butterfly’s decline, including climate change, pesticide use and habitat loss. In Northern California, these environmental threats were compounded in the last two years by unusually hot and windy weather accompanied by massive wildfires. The result is a near total absence of Western Monarchs on our coast.

    Alarming statistics  

    The Life of a Female Monarch

    To understand how to revive the Monarch it is a good idea to know something about the life cycle of these creatures. Let’s start with the birth of a baby Monarch (I know, that sounds like the first line of a BBC documentary on the royal family).

    Summoning her energy, the female Monarch lays 300-500 eggs on the leaves of a milkweed plant, attaching each precious bundle to the leaf with a bit of glue she secretes. After anywhere from a few days to a couple of weeks, the eggs hatch into larvae. The green and black striped babies eat milkweed and nothing else for about two weeks. Then they spin a chrysalis to protect themselves while they transform in a week or two into an adult butterfly.

    Newly hatched Monarch larva Larva on a milkweed plant Adult emerging from chrysalis  


    But the caterpillars aren’t just getting plump during their two weeks of munching on milkweed. In fact, the milkweed contains toxins that caterpillars are able to store in their bodies. These toxins render the adult butterflies poisonous to birds and other predators, who associate the distinctive orange and black color pattern with mortal danger and therefore leave the butterflies alone.


    If adult Monarchs emerge in the spring or early summer, they disperse throughout the Western US to go through successive breeding generations. But if they’re born in the later summer or fall, they head toward warmer climes. Monarchs in the Western states generally migrate to the coast, while those east of the Rockies often fly all the way to Mexico to overwinter. For more information on this amazing journey, check out the website of the Xerces Society, an international nonprofit organization dedicated to pollinator conservation. 

    How to Help the Western Monarch

      Everyone has
    a role to play in supporting the Monarchs!

    Activists nominated the Monarch to receive protection under the Endangered Species Act in 2020. The US Fish and Wildlife Service affirmed that protected status was warranted but did not take action at this time. However, there are a number of other national, state, and local groups dedicated to saving the Monarch. For example, the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies has established a Western Monarch Working Group to promote “unified, ecosystem-based management approaches at the landscape-level” to the protection of the Monarch. 

    Individual citizens have an important role to play as well. In the Point Reyes Light article referenced above, Morgan Patton of the Environmental Action Committee of Marin (EAC) has noted that, “One of the most important things to emphasize is that individual actions for habitat support are just as important as large-scale habitat restoration. They are primarily migrating through private property, and the action people take in their own gardens has an impact.” 

    Patton also emphasized the importance of making sure that we plant native species of milkweed (e.g., Asclepias fascicularis or Asclepias speciosa) and not tropical varieties (e.g., Ascelpias curassavica). Be careful because the tropical varieties can easily be found in garden centers. Also, if you live within five miles of the ocean you should not plant any milkweed at all. The presence of this plant in the "wrong" place throws off their reproductive and migratory activities.

    If you want to learn more about the current status of the Western Monarch and what you can do to help, take a look at the EAC website. Or you can investigate the possibility of becoming a “Monarch Waystation” by planting milkweed, monitoring visitations, and reporting your observations to a portal that aggregates the data across all contributors. 

    On the Somewhat Brighter Side: Other Butterflies in Marin

    Compared to the plight of the Monarch, many species of butterfly are doing relatively well. Marin County is home to more than 70 butterfly species, and all of them would love to stop by your yard for a sip of nectar. 

    Satyr Anglewing California Tortoiseshell

    Coastal Green Hairstreak

    Common Buckeye

    The best plants for butterflies are California natives. Having evolved together, native plants can provide native butterflies the nectar they need to thrive and the leaves required by their larvae. Butterflies are picky about where they lay their eggs because, as we saw in the case of the Monarch, caterpillars can eat only certain plants. 


    Another reason to look for native plants is that when non-natives travel across state boundaries they are treated with pesticides. These toxins persist as the plant grows and can be ingested by pollinators. 

    We are lucky in the Bay Area to have many great sources of native plants, whether it be in the form of seeds (e.g. Larner Seeds in Bolinas) or plants (e.g., Bay Natives Nursery in San Francisco; Mostly Natives Nursery in Point Reyes Station). Another resource for native plants is the website of the Marin Chapter of the California Native Plant Society. And be sure to check out the beautiful and informative website of Home Ground Habitats, a native plant nursery and educational organization where volunteers propagate native plants for a variety of restoration projects. They also provide many plants for sale by the California Native Plant Society Marin Chapter, and for installation in local school gardens. 


    Pipevine Swallowtail


    What inspired me about Insight Garden Program was it was a safe place where I learned to meditate and discover my reconnection to nature and the gardens. This has allowed me to successfully transition to a stable job and be present with my family and community in a way that I never have before. I have a different way of being in the world and the space that I hold in it.

    -Bilial Coleman, IGP graduate 

    Within the Prison Gates: Environmental and Social Justice

    It’s one thing to encourage privileged citizens of the Bay Area to establish pollinator gardens. But what about residents who do not have space to plant a garden, who may have had little opportunity to learn about horticulture, or who are living with pressing financial concerns?

    In the course of my research for this post, I came across two inspiring programs that seek to support environmental as well as social and criminal justice for residents of marginalized communities in the Bay Area. 

    In 2002, Beth Waitkus founded the Insight Garden Program (IGP) at San Quentin State Prison. Waitkus and her colleagues developed a curriculum focused on vocational gardening and landscaping training. In 2003, IGP built a 1,600 square foot native plant and flower garden in the prison yard. In addition to learning about horticulture, IGP participants learn strategies to reconnect to the self, the community, and the natural world. The IGP program calls this an “inner” and “outer” gardening approach. The IGP program is now being implemented in eleven prisons in California as well as in a number of other institutions throughout the US.

    Planting Justice is another impressive local program focused on environmental, social, and criminal justice. Haleh Zandi and Gavin Raders co-founded the organization with four programs in mind: landscaping, education, grassroots fundraising and urban farming training. Their program draws on the permaculture model of sustainable design. 

    Catchment system designed by Planting Justice staff  
    Planting Justice has been collaborating with the Insight Gardening Program (IGP) since 2009, expanding the garden at San Quentin and participating in IGP’s education and training efforts. Planting Justice also employs teams of gardeners and landscapers – most of them formerly incarcerated people -- who plant edible permaculture gardens in the Bay Area, encouraging people to grow their own food. They can help home gardeners plan a garden, build a chicken coop, establish a beehive, or design a rainwater catchment system. 

    Planting Justice also runs a large organic nursery in Oakland, with proceeds benefiting local communities and formerly incarcerated citizens. They are oriented toward mail order business, and their extensive stock is truly impressive, with many varieties of rare and heirloom plants. They are also developing a retail-oriented site in El Sobrante, where customers will be able to obtain high quality organic plants as well as support formerly incarcerated individuals’ successful transition to life in their community. 

    That’s it for this installment of the EFM Notebook! Thanks to Christopher Jadallah for sharing his knowledge of pollinators, and for introducing me to the Insight Garden Program. 

    As this post comes out, appalling political events are taking place across the country. Nevertheless, I continue to hope and believe that the incoming government will be far more proactive than the outgoing one on environmental issues. 

    The events of the last years, months, and days have shown me how important it is to advocate for environmental and social justice. I am truly grateful for the opportunity to contribute to the EFM and for your interest in the Notebook.

    Banner photo credit: Thanks to Rob Badger and Nita Winter for sharing Rob’s beautiful image. 

    Check out their award-winning book or visit their website to see more!

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